Pre-Menstrual Syndrome: what it is and how it affects your cycle

Most women have felt it at some point, some more intensely than others. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome is not an illness, but it can be very disruptive of someone’s life and should be taken seriously.

What is Pre-Menstrual Syndrome?

Pre-menstrual syndrome is a collection of symptoms that women may feel in the days or weeks before they menstruate. The symptoms are not the same for every woman and can also vary from month to month. These are some common symptoms:

Physical PMS symptoms:

  • Cramps;
  • Breast tenderness;
  • Bloating;
  • Acne or oily skin;
  • Greasy hair;
  • Stomach problems;
  • Headaches;
  • Changes in the sexual drive;
  • Tiredness and sleeping troubles;
  • Decreased or increased appetite;
  • Constipation or diarrhoea;
  • Backaches;
  • Hot flushes or cold sweats;
  • A general feeling of being sick.

Emotional and psychological PMS symptoms:

  • Anxiety, irritability, feeling down;
  • Mood swings;
  • Depression;
  • Trouble concentrating;
  • Reduced self-confidence;
  • Feeling overemotional or overwhelmed;
  • Clumsiness or forgetfulness.

Yes, this list is huge. We know. If any of the symptoms of PMS is just too much, like unreasonable pain, very violent mood swings, debilitating tiredness, or anything that seriously hinders your ability to do your daily life, seek medical advice.
You can (and should) get help if your PMS is just too much – you could be suffering from Pre-Menstrual Dysphoric Disorder, which is an extreme form of PMS.

Why does Pre-Menstrual Syndrome happen?

Unfortunately, PMS is still a bit of a mystery. It is not yet fully understood why women go through Pre-Menstrual Syndrome, but the consensus is that it is tightly linked with all the brutal hormonal changes happening in your body.
As you know, hormones have an impact on your body and some women are more susceptible than others. Some very lucky women do not experience PMS at all! Can you imagine?

How does Pre-Menstrual Syndrome affect your cycle?

In fact, PMS does not affect your cycle. Your cycle is most likely causing your PMS. Sorry. Every month a truckload of hormones is dumped into your organism. These hormones have a lot of effects – some not so good.
But fortunately, as soon as your period comes, the symptoms should ease or even go away. Hormonal birth control can sometimes help with some of the symptoms, especially the physical ones.

What to do (and not to do) to ease the symptoms of PMS?

• Do regular exercise

Doing regular physical exercise is great for your health – both physical and mental. And when you have PMS it is no different! There are a lot of benefits to exercising while on PMS or period!

• Eat healthily

Yes, we know. When PMS-ing or on your period you crave loads of unhealthy foods. We do too. And you know what? You should not restrict yourself too much! You are allowed a break. However, bear in mind that fatty and processed foods might not help the stomach problems, the bloating, the acne, and so on. Check out what foods to eat on your period.

• Drink a lot of water

Haha, yes, we really did sneak water in here. Water is literally life! Keep always hydrated, and especially when you’re going through Pre-Menstrual Syndrome. Drinking 1.5 to 2 litres of water a day will seriously change your life. And your skin. And your hair. And your mood.

• De-stress and try to relax

Easier said than done, but just look for what works for you. Is it yoga? Meditation? A night with friends? A night in with your better half? Netflix and ice-cream? Additionally, try to remove sources of stress from your life (difficult, we know); stock up on tampons or pads – create a Period Box that gets delivered monthly to your door!

• Painkillers might be an option

Some people have a lot of pain both during PMS and during the period and need to take some light painkiller. It is totally ok if cleared by your GP or gynaecologist. If you want to try more natural, home remedies for cramps, check this list out.

• Track your cycle

While it doesn’t exactly ease-out symptoms, a period tracking app can help you be more prepared. Another thing that can indirectly help you is keeping a period diary and writing down your symptoms and the level of severity in case you need to show it to your GP.

Take care, Of yourself. Of your planet. Of your vagina.


Adittional sources:


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in vitro activity
oritavancin shares certain properties with other members of the glycopeptide class of antibiotics, which includes vancomycin, the current standard of care for serious gram-positive infections in the united states and europe. it possesses potent and rapid bactericidal activity in vitro against a broad spectrum of both resistant and susceptible gram-positive bacteria, including staphylococcus aureus, mrsa, enterococci, and streptococci. oritavancin was more active than either metronidazole or vancomycin against strains of clostridium difficile tested.

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March 28, 2022

, sold under the brand names protopic and prograf among others, is an immunosuppressive drug. it is used after allogeneic organ transplant to lower the risk of organ rejection, and also as a topical medication in the treatment of t-cell-mediated diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. it also used for severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, exacerbations of minimal change disease, kimura’s disease, and the skin condition vitiligo, and it is used to treat dry eye syndrome in cats and dogs.

tacrolimus inhibits calcineurin, which is involved in the production of interleukin-2, a molecule that promotes the development and proliferation of t cells, as part of the body’s learned (or adaptive) immune response.

chemically, it is a macrolide lactone that was first discovered in 1987, from the fermentation broth of a japanese soil sample that contained the bacterium streptomyces tsukubaensis.

medical uses
organ transplantation
it has similar immunosuppressive properties to ciclosporin, but is much more potent. immunosuppression with tacrolimus was associated with a significantly lower rate of acute rejection compared with ciclosporin-based immunosuppression (30.7% vs 46.4%) in one study. clinical outcome is better with tacrolimus than with ciclosporin during the first year of liver transplantation. long-term outcome has not been improved to the same extent. tacrolimus is normally prescribed as part of a post-transplant cocktail including steroids, mycophenolate, and il-2 receptor inhibitors such as basiliximab. dosages are titrated to target blood levels.

ulcerative colitis
in recent years,[when?] tacrolimus has been used to suppress the inflammation associated with ulcerative colitis (uc), a form of inflammatory bowel disease. although almost exclusively used in trial cases only, tacrolimus has shown to be significantly effective in the suppression of flares of uc.


tacrolimus 0.1% ointment
see also: medications used in treatment of eczema
as an ointment, tacrolimus is used in the treatment of eczema, in particular atopic dermatitis. it suppresses inflammation in a similar way to steroids, and is equally as effective as a mid-potency steroid. an important advantage of tacrolimus is that, unlike steroids, it does not cause skin thinning (atrophy), or other steroid related side effects.

it is applied on the active lesions until they heal off, but may also be used continuously in low doses (twice a week), and applied to the thinner skin over the face and eyelids.[citation needed] clinical trials of up to one year have been conducted. recently it has also been used to treat segmental vitiligo in children, especially in areas on the face.

lupus nephritis

tacrolimus has been shown to reduce the risk of serious infection while also increasing renal remission in lupus nephritis.

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